The online resources are scattered here and there in my blog posts, depending on the topic and such. So, here's a consolidated list:
Note: If you notice a resource in my blog that's not here (or perhaps a resource from somewhere else that you think would be useful), please inform me so I can update this list.
Average Living Costs for Students (by TUFS): Actually, the page is one of thse FAQs, but scroll down to "Student life and International Halls", if you're planning to study in Japan, some of the more general information might be interesting to you.
If you're wondering about bringing in medicine, this is a pdf document from the kouseikyoku which is like a Q&A. The version that I'm linking to was last updated on 30 Jan 2012, so look around the site for the most recent info. And here is the general link with information for those who are bringing in personal medication.
This is the procedure chart for visa's for long-term work or stays. It looks quite complicated, and quite unlike my personal experience.
If you're a MEXT scholar, the school will help you open a Japan Post Bank account. However, if you're trying to open an account by yourself, I found this guide by The Japan Guy to be very comprehensive.
If you're already in Japan (yay for you!), then here is a Portal Site on Policies for Foreign Residents. The site is in Japanese, English, Portugese and Spanish. Some things like education, pension system, etc are here so you should take a look. In addition, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has prepared a simple but fairly comprehensive Guide to Living in Japan. Considering that I can't find many living in Japan guides, this is a good first-stop if you're trying to see what life is like. Plus, important things like "confirming status of residence" (aka alien registration) are mentioned here.
About earthquakes, Singapore doesn't have them, so I went to do some research. Here is a rather comprehensive site on what to do before, during and after an earthquake. And the information is localised, which is good(: And this pdf document is a checklist of emergency items that you should consider when packing an emergency kit.
The SSAJ (Singapore Students Association Japan) has a radiation FAQ (PDF format). And, their own unofficial guide to studying in Japan. And if you're looking for information about Fukuoka, you can take a look at an introduction I wrote for them here.
So in 2012, I'm did a language year (basically I just study Japanese). This doesn't mean that this blog is about learning Japanese (sorry, if I did that I wouldn't have time to post anything else. And I might contravene some copyright laws). But, I think you can use the same online resource the school gave me JPlang. I say maybe because they gave me an account, but they do have a register page for those that aren't studying in TUFS. And it's a really good resource, basically an online textbook covering conversations, grammer with drills and such.
For kanji, I use ReadTheKanji, although bewarned, you do have to pay to access all the levels (I joined as a beta tester so I got a free account). The easiest levels (if I'm right, it's hiragana, katakana and N5) are free though(:
Food: For Japanese food recipes, you'd want to go to JustBento (and its sister site JustHungry). They both cover Japanese food and have lots of recipes. But personally, I like JustBento better because it's bento specific and fits my needs better since I cook a lot at one go (to store).
It Keeps Getting Better - A new (2014) blog by Teann, a student from Guam! She blogs about a bunch of different stuff, and you should totally check out her blog!